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Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
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Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS

'factor analysis' Search Results



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The goals of the study were to examine the predictive power of general cognitive ability, working memory, and self-efficacy in first grade for academic functioning of children at risk for learning disabilities in second grade. The study involved 82 children (age 6-7 years) from five local public elementary schools in middle-class neighborhoods in Jerusalem, including 41 children at risk for specific learning disabilities and 41 typically developing peers. In the first stage of the study, (performed at the end of first grade), general cognitive ability and working memory were assessed using subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (the subtests consisted of:  Vocabulary and Block Design for general cognitive ability; Arithmetic and Digit Span for working memory). Academic self-efficacy was rated using a structural interview. At follow-up, academic functioning was assessed at the end of second grade. A serial-multiple mediation analysis revealed significant mediating roles for levels of performance in the Arithmetic subtest and for academic self-efficacy in predicting the academic functioning in second grade. The significance of the Arithmetic subtest, based on contemporary research on the structure of the intelligence was proposed. Educational implications call for sensitizing teachers to the unique role of academic self-efficacy in shaping trajectories of academic functioning development among children with RLD and in using effective strategies of promoting self-efficacy.

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10.12973/ejper.2.1.11
Pages: 11-20
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This study aimed at determining and validating the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) in a Zambian context. It examined the feasibility of its use in this cultural context. Additionally, the study aimed at examining the reliability of the instrument when used in the same context. The participants were drawn from two cohorts (2016/2017 and 2017/2018 academic years) of first year students from the Department of Mathematic sand Science Education at the Copperbelt University in Zambia. One hundred and seven (25 females and 82 males) students from the 2016/2017 cohort and 138 (47 females and 91males) students from the 2017/2018 cohort participated in the study. The process of validating the instrument involved factor analysis. Using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), the Monte Carlo PCA for Parallel Analysis and Varimax methods for both cohorts, a four factor structure model of the SSEIT was reported. The instrument was reliable with a Cronbach coefficient of 0.79 in the 2016/2017 Cohort and 0.74 in the 2017/2018 Cohort. The study concluded that the SSEIT is a reliable and valid tool to measure the emotional intelligence of first year students from the Department of Mathematic sand Science Education at the Copperbelt University in Zambia.

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10.12973/ejper.2.2.31
Pages: 31-41
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Previous research suggests that learning basic neuroscience constructs, especially about the malleability of the brain, impacts middle school and older students’ academic mindset, response to failure and academic persistence.  This research targets teacher beliefs using a similar model.  Teachers were taught introductory neuroscience concepts related to how the brain learns.  Session topics included: basic neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity, sleep and the brain, stress and the brain, exercise and the brain, growth mindset, growth mindset feedback, self- control and grit.   Results of this school level intervention suggest significant impacts on teachers’ mindset, teaching efficacy, teachers’ approach to learning and grit.  In particular, teacher mindset beliefs significantly increased after the teachers were taught the concepts.  Implications for schools and teacher preparation are discussed.

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10.12973/ejper.3.1.39
Pages: 39-48
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Improving Executive Functions in Elementary Schoolchildren

executive functions school-based intervention children socially-disadvantaged contexts

Celina Korzeniowski , Gabriela Morelato , Carolina Greco , Juan Manuel Monteoliva


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Executive Functions (EFs) describe a set of cognitive control abilities that help children to develop self-regulated behavior and do well in their schooling. The promotion of EFs in children at social risk is an area of relevance for neurosciences and education. On this basis, the present study set out to analyze a school-based intervention targeted to strengthening EFs in Argentine children at social risk. Participants were 69 children from 8 to 10 years old, from an urban-marginalized federal school in Mendoza. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design was used, with a control group. The cognitive intervention was embedded in the school curriculum and was carried out for a month and a half. The schoolchildren were evaluated before and after the intervention with EFs’ neuropsychological tests. The main results showed that the group cognitive intervention was associated with gains in the schoolchildren’s attention processes, although it did not favor other EFs, which could indicate moderate effectiveness. These data provide evidence in favor of ecological interventions as a way to promote attention development trajectories in children at social risk, and in turn, draw up guidelines to reflect on the design and the modalities of school-based interventions.

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10.12973/ejper.3.1.59
Pages: 59-73
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Cumulative Risk of Psychological Distress in College Students Effected by Hurricane Harvey

hurricane harvey college student stress depression

Philip J. Hudson , Betty Lai , Mary B. Short


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This study examines the relationship between prior trauma and post disaster psychological distress in a sample of college students exposed to Hurricane Harvey in Houston, Texas in 2017. College students (n = 324) receive treatment for psychological problems at very low rates, so screening for the most vulnerable students after a disaster is important. While the relationship between prior trauma and post-disaster psychological distress is well established, the evidence for prior disaster exposure as a risk factor outside of other trauma is mixed. Prior trauma was divided into two cumulative risk style indicators: prior traumatic experiences (excluding disasters) and prior disaster exposure. In multiple linear regression models, prior traumatic experiences were significant predictors of post-disaster symptoms of both post-traumatic stress disorder and depression following the hurricane. Prior disaster exposures were not significant in either case. Implications for future screening and analysis of risk factors are discussed.

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10.12973/ejper.3.2.101
Pages: 101-109
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The role of motivation, temperament, personality and well-being as predicting propensity factors for mathematical abilities was investigated in 30 adults. By embedding these predictors in the Opportunity-Propensity framework, this study aimed to reveal their unique contribution in math development, which is important to improve mathematics education. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to combine predictors and find evidence for the importance of some non-cognitive and socio-emotional propensity factors for mathematical performance by using primary data. Results indicated significant interrelations between the propensities, pleading to integrate them in math research. Furthermore, the relationship propensities and mathematics was dependent on the specific investigated math task, which is in line with the componential nature of mathematics. Negative Affect was the best prediction of accuracy (lower levels of subjective well-being associated with lower levels of mathematical accuracy) whereas Intrinsic Motivation was the best predictor for fact retrieval speed. Limitations and implications for future research are described.

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10.12973/ejper.4.1.1
Pages: 1-12
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The diagnostic utility of the Woodcock- Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Clinical Clusters was assessed in a sample of 52 children (26 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disordered (ADHD) and 26 matched controls). Multivariate analysis of variance followed by post-hoc testing and d-ratios yielded some statistically significant and clinically meaningful differences between groups on the Cognitive Fluency Cluster and the Tests of Auditory Attention, and Rapid Picture Naming. Discriminant function analyses indicated that the WJ III COG Tests collectively classified 80.77% of the sample correctly (76.92% of controls and 84.62% of children with ADHD correctly identified). The Auditory Attention and Rapid Picture Naming tests were found to make the most significant contribution overall to the discriminant function. Using a cut-score of 85, the WJ-III COG Clinical clusters and subtests examined in this study offered fair to weak diagnostic utility based on indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power, as well as results of Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analyses. Implications for research and practice are outlined.

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10.12973/ejper.4.1.37
Pages: 37-49
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During the second decade of the 21st century families and schools world-wide have been affected by several critical events, with economic recession, the refugee crisis, and lately the COVID-19 pandemic being the most prominent. Pertaining to the school community (students, educators, administration, parents, school personnel etc.), evidence-based interventions for improving mental health and supporting psychosocial adjustment are necessary. In this paper the development, implementation, and evaluation of the international WeCARE (We Connect, Accept, Respect, Empower) program, an online multilevel intervention for promoting well-being and resilience in the school community during unsettling times, is presented. The Program has a multicultural perspective and provides the opportunity to students from different countries to cooperate and develop multicultural skills. The intervention is based on a conceptual model for enhancing positive development, resilience, social and emotional skills, and competence. The interventions were implemented on individual and system levels over four consecutive years, including web-based teachers’ training and supervision, seminars for parents, and classroom implementation. Furthermore, collaboration amongst schools and educational settings was highlighted, in the form of networking at national and international level. Based on the evaluation results, the necessity for further development and implementation of programs for the promotion of resilience and well-being during unsettling times is discussed.

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10.12973/ejper.4.1.51
Pages: 51-67
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Content Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess Parental Involvement in Education

content validity educational psychology parental involvement

Maria Gabriela Caligiore-Gei , Mirta Susana Ison-Zintilini


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The objective of this study was to design an instrument to evaluate parental involvement in the education of their children, and, subsequently, to investigate the content validity of that instrument. The questions on the questionnaire have been written according to the dimensions that shape the construct of parental participation: parenting, learning supervision, communication, parental networks, and relationships with the community. Further, for the study of content validity, expert judgment has been used, and the Aiken V coefficient has been estimated. The results indicate a wide degree of agreement among the judges, showing evidence of content validity regarding the criteria of clarity, relevance, and sufficiency of the questions with Aiken V values that ranged between 0.73 and 1, with confidence intervals of 99 %. It was concluded that the instrument can be used successfully in the evaluation of parental involvement in education.

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10.12973/ejper.4.2.83
Pages: 83-95
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The emotional lives of teaching at the universities have remained under research.   This study used a qualitative approach to investigate the emotional lives of lecturers teaching at two selected universities. This study sought to identify, understand and interpret the emotional lives of teaching with interpretive phenomenology research design. In purposefully selected two universities, 12 lecturers participated in the study. Semi-structured individual interviews were employed, the data generated were interpreted, the emerged themes were: work condition, resources and accreditation panel, trade union and government disagreement, and experienced emotions and effects on participants. A further interpretation of the emerged themes revealed that the emotional lives of the participants are dependent on teaching resources, academic war and convenient behaviour. The dependence is thereby suggestive that change in the management of teaching resources, academic war and behaviour of lecturers could positively influence the nature of their emotional lives. The paper used two universities, which lays the foundation for subsequent studies because this is the first study to examine the emotional lives of teaching in Nigerian universities. The study made recommendations for further studies and drew implications for policy and practice.

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10.12973/ejper.4.2.97
Pages: 97-111
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Assessing College Students’ Social and Emotional Strengths: A Cross-Cultural Comparison from Mexico, United States, and Spain

covitality higher education measurement invariance social emotional health survey

Michael J. Furlong , José A. Piqueras , Leticia Chacón-Gutiérrez , Erin Dowdy , Karen Nylund-Gibson , Meiki Chan , Victoria Soto-Sanz , Juan C. Marzo , Tíscar Rodríguez-Jiménez , Agustín E. Martínez-González


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Endeavors supporting college students’ positive psychosocial development are gaining attention and investment in various countries and social contexts. Higher education experiences provide new academic, social, and vocational advancement opportunities at a critical developmental stage. However, higher education can also cause distress due to the challenges and stressors present during this new stage of increased independence. The Social Emotional Health Survey-Higher Education (SEHS-HE) assesses the core psychosocial strengths of individuals transitioning from secondary schools into institutions of higher education (IHE) to aid campus student support services. The present study sought to extend the SEHS-HE research by examining its application with college student samples from Mexico (n = 4,207), United States (n = 1,638), and Spain (n = 1,734). Confirmatory factor analyses investigated the hypothesized SEHS-HE higher-order factor model. The Mexico sample returned an acceptable model fit, but the USA and Spain samples had a suboptimal fit; hence, we explored alternative models. A two-level structure had full invariance for all three samples. This study extends the current scholarship on the conceptual model and psychometric properties of SEHS-HE. The discussion focuses on implications for future research to enhance SEHS-HE in national and cross-national research and practice.

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10.12973/ejper.4.2.123
Pages: 123-137
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Findings from a research synthesis of the relationships between family needs and parent, family, and child functioning are reported. The synthesis included 31 studies conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were conducted between 1987 and 2021 and included 4,543 participants. Eight different family needs scales or adaptations of the scales were completed by the study participants (mothers, fathers, or grandmothers of children with developmental disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, or medical conditions). The outcome measures included caregiver psychological health, parenting stress, parenting burden, parenting beliefs, family coping strategies, family functioning, family support, and child functioning. The correlations between family needs and the outcome measures were used as the sizes of effects for evaluating the strength of the relationships between measures. Results showed that unmet family needs were associated with more negative and less positive family and family member functioning and fewer unmet family needs were associated with more positive and less negative family and family member functioning. The sizes of effect for parenting stress and burden were larger than were the sizes of effects for each of the other outcome measures. Child condition and study quality moderated the relationship between family needs and parenting stress and burden but not the other outcome measures. The results are discussed in terms of one component of family systems intervention models.

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10.12973/ejper.5.1.11
Pages: 11-32
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This study was conducted to explore the five-factor structure of the Need for Closure scale on Indian samples using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Data were initially collected from 450 samples which were reduced to 235 cases later based on the lie score criteria of the Need for Closure Scale. To rule out the problems caused by all questionnaire items like low reliability and low communalities, parceling of the items (creating three parcels from each facet) was done before the multivariate analysis (EFA and CFA). In the results, EFA showed that the five-factor structure of the NFC scale explains 52% of the variance. The goodness of fit statistics in the CFA model met the criteria (χ2 = 190.153, GFI = 0.908, TLI = 0.855, CFI = 0.890, RMSEA = 0.077) for the reasonable fit of the single factor structure of the NFC construct. In conclusion, this study presented the good psychometric properties of the NFC scale. It can be used to assess the individual's need for closure in the wider contexts of Indian studies.

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10.12973/ejper.5.1.45
Pages: 45-51
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In this study, a cluster analysis was performed by creating a data set from students' personality traits and academic procrastination behaviours. Correlation analysis was done to examine the relationship between the variables, and the characteristics of the formed clusters and the association of the clusters with the perceived socioeconomic status were examined. Cluster analysis is a simple and practical method for classifying a set of complex data based on certain variables and making them more meaningful and using the results as an aid to decision-making. Clustering algorithms handle such data effectively, making it more meaningful. Following the analysis, it was revealed that two clusters had formed. The first of the clusters includes 65.2 % of the sample population; the level of procrastination and the mean score of neurotic personality traits were calculated higher than the other cluster. The remaining part of the sample population (34.8 %) constitutes the second cluster. The mean scores of studying systematically habits and extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience personality traits of the students forming this cluster are higher than the other cluster. No association was observed between the clusters and the perceived socioeconomic levels of the students. The distributions of socioeconomic levels within the clusters are similar to each other. When the correlations of these variables are examined; positive relationships were found between the level of procrastination and neurotic personality traits. Procrastination behaviour and neurotic personality traits were also negatively correlated with other variables.

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10.12973/ejper.5.1.63
Pages: 63-76
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At the beginning of primary school, young children need to adapt academically, socially, and emotionally to their new school environment. Enjoying going to school and becoming socially integrated are important preconditions for successful learning. However, children from disadvantaged families have fewer resources and receive less support, and such deficits can result in lower attainment, negative emotions, and lower well-being. In recent years, interest in emotions and well-being in school has grown in educational research. However, studies analyzing the affective characteristics of disadvantaged students, especially in primary school, are still scarce. In this study, we analyzed reciprocal relationships between school enjoyment, social integration, and achievement using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (Grades 1 and 2), while controlling for family background and sex. We used data from the National Educational Panel Study in Germany (NEPS; N = 4,986). Results showed positive effects of school enjoyment on achievement and social integration on school enjoyment. Additionally, a better home learning environment had positive effects on school enjoyment and social integration in Grade 1. Effects of socioeconomic and migration background on school enjoyment and social integration were not significant. Our results show no evidence that educationally disadvantaged students are additionally disadvantaged in their school enjoyment or social integration at the beginning of primary school.  

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10.12973/ejper.5.2.127
Pages: 127-143
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The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Study

factor analysis rses self-esteem validity

Abdelouahed Bouih , Driss Benattabou , Bendaoud Nadif , Mohamed Benhima , Ismail Benfilali


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The aim of the present study is to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES) as part of the study of affective variables using a sample of English as a foreign language (EFL) university students in Morocco. Two hundred and six (N = 206) participants of undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate levels completed the self-esteem (SE) questionnaire. Using classical methods of factor extraction before employing more robust techniques comprising minimum average partial (MAP) and parallel analysis (PA) to perform preliminary factor analysis (FA) using principal axis factoring (PAF), results conclusively and parsimoniously yielded a one-factor solution with acceptable construct reliability (Composite Reliability). CFA results, including goodness-of-fit indexes, confirmed that the one-factor model was better fitting compared to its competing independent two-factor counterpart, but marginally less so compared to the correlated version of the latter. Two out of the three constructed models showed good fit indexes, thus demonstrating the conformity of two measurement models with their respective hypothesized structural models. Furthermore, using the heterotrait-monotrait (HTMT) ratio, both two-factor models showed acceptable discriminant validity. The obtained results further corroborate both the one-factor and two-factor solutions reported in previous works for which we present new evidence from a Moroccan EFL context.

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10.12973/ejper.5.2.143
Pages: 143-160
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Challenges relating to misuse and abuse of the internet and other mobile devices have become sources of concern among the youth population the world-over. However, research on cyber related issues has been focused mainly on adolescents in Nigeria. This study investigates the influence of cyber bullying, cyber victimization and pathological internet use on psychological well-being among adults. Using a cross sectional research design and a multi-stage sampling technique, 280 university students were selected. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile cyber intimidation and internet addiction was administered to the participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that participants who engage less in cyber bullying were not significantly different in their levels of psychological well-being when compared to their counterparts who engage more in cyber-bullying. Pathological Internet use did not significantly influence the levels of psychological well-being of cyber space addicts. The association between cyber related variables and psychological well-being is crucial for better understanding of their actual effects on human behaviour and for the purpose of designing intervention programmes.

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10.12973/ejper.3.2.161
Pages: 161-172
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One of the life areas under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is university education. As it becomes more prevalent with its various versions, it shapes undergraduates' psychological well-being profoundly. It is necessary to understand how COVID-19-related stress impacts their mental life. The purpose of the study was to examine whether COVID-19 burnout and cognitive emotion regulation had mediating roles in the relationship between COVID-19-related stress and life satisfaction. Three hundred sixty-four Turkish undergraduates participated in the study. Mediational analyses showed that both adaptive and maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation had interplaying roles in the link between COVID-19-related stress and life satisfaction, unlike COVID-19 burnout. Yet, COVID-19-related stress indirectly affected life satisfaction since COVID-19 burnout increased maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies while decreasing adaptive ones concurrently. The findings are crucial for mental health professionals whose aim is to develop necessary psychological interventions for undergraduates to increase their life satisfaction levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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10.12973/ejper.6.1.23
Pages: 23-31
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Hispanic college students typically report a lower sense of belonging than their White peers, citing challenges related to first generation student status, low-income family backgrounds, and academic underpreparedness. The present study asked whether Hispanic students would have a lower sense of belonging than non-Hispanic White students and whether academic self-efficacy would be able to provide a greater buffer against belonging loss for Hispanic students compared to their non-Hispanic White peers. The participants of this study were Hispanic (n = 68) and non-Hispanic White (n = 420) first year students at a predominantly White small liberal arts college. Academic self-efficacy was a significant predictor of change in belonging for Hispanic students but not for non-Hispanic White students. These results suggest academic self-efficacy is a worthwhile target of belonging interventions for Hispanic students.  

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10.12973/ejper.6.2.69
Pages: 69-76
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Previous research focused on individuals’ background, contexts and cognitive performance in education, work, and life. Given the increasing number of people living alone temporarily, the question arises whether the frequent use of skills, including social skills, relates to individuals’ later positively self-evaluated skills and social lives. Based on an integrated framework, the current analysis aimed to disentangle these relationships with longitudinal data from Germany over three years. The target sample consisted of n = 3263 working adults. A Bayesian structural equation model included adults’ frequent use of skills, self-evaluated skills, household size, close friends, and seven covariates (e.g., numeracy and literacy test scores, weekly working hours. The results suggested positive relationships between adults’ frequent use of numeracy, literacy, and social skills and later self-evaluations (except literacy used on self-evaluated numeracy). Those who less frequently used social skills three years earlier were also less likely to have a larger household size than those who reporting frequently using their social skills. Adults who frequently used literacy skills three years earlier reported higher numbers of close friends than those who less frequently used literacy. The findings highlight the importance of adults’ social skills and frequently used skills for self-evaluated numeracy and literacy.

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10.12973/ejper.6.2.97
Pages: 97-118
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