logo logo European Journal of Psychology and Educational Research

EJPER is is a, peer reviewed, online academic research journal.

Subscribe to

Receive Email Alerts

for special events, calls for papers, and professional development opportunities.


Publisher (HQ)

Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
Eurasian Society of Educational Research
Christiaan Huygensstraat 44, Zipcode:7533XB, Enschede, THE NETHERLANDS
academic procrastination big five personality traits cluster analysis

Investigating High School Students' Personality Traits and Academic Procrastination with Cluster Analysis

Caner Börekci

In this study, a cluster analysis was performed by creating a data set from students' personality traits and academic procrastination behaviours. .


In this study, a cluster analysis was performed by creating a data set from students' personality traits and academic procrastination behaviours. Correlation analysis was done to examine the relationship between the variables, and the characteristics of the formed clusters and the association of the clusters with the perceived socioeconomic status were examined. Cluster analysis is a simple and practical method for classifying a set of complex data based on certain variables and making them more meaningful and using the results as an aid to decision-making. Clustering algorithms handle such data effectively, making it more meaningful. Following the analysis, it was revealed that two clusters had formed. The first of the clusters includes 65.2 % of the sample population; the level of procrastination and the mean score of neurotic personality traits were calculated higher than the other cluster. The remaining part of the sample population (34.8 %) constitutes the second cluster. The mean scores of studying systematically habits and extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience personality traits of the students forming this cluster are higher than the other cluster. No association was observed between the clusters and the perceived socioeconomic levels of the students. The distributions of socioeconomic levels within the clusters are similar to each other. When the correlations of these variables are examined; positive relationships were found between the level of procrastination and neurotic personality traits. Procrastination behaviour and neurotic personality traits were also negatively correlated with other variables.

Keywords: Academic procrastination, big five personality traits, cluster analysis.

cloud_download PDF
Article Metrics


Acock, A. C., & Stavig, G. R. (1979). A Measure of association for nonparametric statistics. Social Forces, 57(4), 1381–1386. https://doi.org/10.2307/2577276  

Allik, J., & McCrae, R. R. (2004). Toward a geography of personality traits: Patterns of profiles across 36 cultures. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology35(1), 13-28. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022103260382

Anderson, C., John, O. P., Keltner, D., & Kring, A. M. (2001). Who attains social status? Effects of personality and physical attractiveness in social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 116–132. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.1.116 

Ayoub, M., Gosling, S. D., Potter, J., Shanahan, M., & Roberts, B. W. (2018). The relations between parental socioeconomic status, personality, and life outcomes. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9(3), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617707018

Azucar, D., Marengo, D., & Settanni, M. (2018). Predicting the Big 5 personality traits from digital footprints on social media: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences124, 150-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.12.018

Baltacı, A. (2017a). The Relations between procrastination behavior tendency and big-five personality traits: A survey on school Administrators. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Studies, 3(1), 56-80. https://bit.ly/3s2mpjY

Baltacı, A. (2017b). The relations between procrastination behavior tendency and personality traits of primary school teachers. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 7(12), 54-81. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.311128

Bäulke, L., Daumiller, M., & Dresel, M. (2021). How conscientiousness and neuroticism affect academic procrastination. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 51(4), 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1026/0049-8637/a000225 

Berkovich, I., & Eyal, O. (2021). Teachers’ big five personality traits, emotion regulation patterns, and moods: Mediation and prototype analyses. Research papers in education, 36(3), 332-354. https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2019.1677758

Boysan, M., & Kiral, E. (2017). Associations between procrastination, personality, perfectionism, self-esteem and locus of control. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 45(3), 284-296. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2016.1213374

Börekci, C., & Uyangör, N. (2019). The effect of activities based on project-based learning approach on metacognitive and self-regulation skills. The Journal of Turkish Social Research, 23(3), 812-829. https://bit.ly/3F0lMwy  

Cakici, D. C. (2003). Lise ve universite ogrencilerinde genel erteleme ve akademik erteleme davranisinin incelenmesi [Examination of general procrastination and academic procrastination behavior in high school and university students] [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Ankara University.

Chandrasekara, W. S. (2019). Relationship among big five Personality traits, job performance & job satisfaction: A case of school teachers in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Information, Business and Management11(2), 219-232. https://doi.org/10.20472/IAC.2018.044.009

Cheng, S. L., & Xie, K. (2021). Why college students procrastinate in online courses: A self-regulated learning perspective. The Internet and Higher Education, 50, 100807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2021.100807

Chow, H. P. (2011). Procrastination among undergraduate students: Effects of emotional intelligence, school life, self-evaluation, and self-efficacy. Alberta Journal of Educational Research57(2), 234-240. https://doi.org/10.11575/ajer.v57i2.55479

Cohen, J. (2013). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Routledge.

Conger, R. D., Martin, M. J., & Masarik, A. S. (2021). Dynamic associations among socioeconomic status (SES), parenting investments, and conscientiousness across time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 57(2), 147–163. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000463

Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1995). Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: A reply to Block. Psychological Bulletin, 117(2), 216–220. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.216

Deckers, T., Falk, A., Kosse, F., & Schildberg-Hörisch, H. (2015). How does socioeconomic status shape a child's personality? (IZA Discussion Paper no. 8977). Institute for the Study of Labor. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2598917

Doğan, T., Kürüm, A., & Kazak, M. (2017). Kişilik özelliklerinin erteleme davranışını yordayıcılığı [The predictor of procrastination behavior of personality traits]. Başkent University Journal of Education1(1), 1-8. https://bit.ly/3F2Agw5

Eisenbeck, N., Carreno, D. F., & Uclés-Juárez, R. (2019). From psychological distress to academic procrastination: Exploring the role of psychological inflexibility. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science13, 103-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.07.007

Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1979). Overcoming procrastination: Or, how to think and act rationally in spite of life's inevitable hassles. Signet Book.

Ergin, A., Mutlu, E., & Coşkun, Y. D. (2021). Examination of the relationship between engineering faculty students'academic procrastination behaviors and problem solving skills. Journal of International Education Science, 27(8), 35-62. https://doi.org/10.29228/INESJOURNAL.51397   

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 455-458. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1991.68.2.455

Ferrari, J. R. (2010). Still procrastinating: The no regrets guide to getting it done. John Wiley and Sons.

Ferrari, J. R. (2017, May 8). Are you a procrastinator? Here’s how you’re helping online scammers. Guardian.

Ferrari, J. R., & Scher, S. J. (2000). Toward an understanding of academics and nonacademic tasks procrastinated by students: The use of daily logs. Psychology in the Schools, 37(4), 359-366. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(200007)37:4<367::AID-PITS7>3.0.CO;2-Y

Field, A. P. (2016). Discovering statistics: The reality enigma. SAGE Pub.

Gerber, A. S., Huber, G. A., Doherty, D., Dowling, C. M., & Ha, S. E. (2010). Personality and political attitudes: Relationships across issue domains and political contexts. American Political Science Review, 104(1), 111-133. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055410000031

Geukes, K., van Zalk, M., & Back, M. D. (2018). Understanding personality development: An integrative state process model. International Journal of Behavioral Development42(1), 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025416677847

 Goldberg, L. R. (1982). From Ace to Zombie: Some explorations in the language of personality. In C. D. Spielberger & J. N. Butcher (Eds.), Advances in Personality Assessment (pp. 201–234). Hillsdale.

Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality traits. The American Psychologist48(1), 26–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.1.26

Graziano, W. G., & Tobin, R. M. (2002). Agreeableness: Dimension of personality or social desirability artifact? Journal of Personality, 70(5), 695-728. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.05021

Guilford, J. P. (1975). Factors and factors of personality. Psychological Bulletin, 82(5), 802–814. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0077101

Han, J. H. (2020). The effects of personality traits on subjective well-being and behavioral intention associated with serious leisure experiences. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business7(5), 167-176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-005-8628-3

Horzum, M. B., Tuncay, A., & Padir, M. A. (2017). Beş Faktör Kişilik Ölçeğinin Türk kültürüne uyarlanması [Adaptation of Big Five Personality Traits Scale to Turkish culture]. Sakarya University Journal of Education7(2), 398-408. https://doi.org/10.19126/suje.298430

Howell, A. J., & Watson, D. C. (2007). Procrastination: Associations with achievement goal orientation and learning strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.017

Jain, A. K. (2010). Data clustering: 50 years beyond K-means. Pattern recognition letters31(8), 651-666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patrec.2009.09.011

Judge, T. A., Higgins, C. A., Thoresen, C. J., & Barrick, M. R. (1999). The big five personality traits, general mental ability, and career success across the life span. Personnel Psychology52(3), 621-652. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00174.x

Kağan, M., Çakır, O., İlhan, T., & Kandemir, M. (2010). The explanation of the academic procrastination behaviour of university students with perfectionism, obsessive–compulsive and five factor personality traits. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences2(2), 2121-2125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.292

Karasar, N. (2013). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [Scientific research method]. Nobel.

Karataş, H. (2015). Correlation among academic procrastination, personality traits, and academic achievement. Anthropologist20(1), 243-255

Kavut, S. (2018). A research on Karen Horney and neurotic character: Instance of Blue Jasmine. The Journal of International Social Research, 11(55), 512-524. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.20185537224

Kettenring, J. R. (2006). The practice of cluster analysis. Journal of Classification23(1), 3-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00357-006-0002-6

Kim, S., Fernandez, S., & Terrier, L. (2017). Procrastination, personality traits, and academic performance: When active and passive procrastination tell a different story. Personality and Individual differences, 108, 154-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.021 

Kim, Y., Kim, S., & Kim, Y. M. (2017). Big-five personality and motivations associated with sport team social networking site usage: A cluster analysis approach. Journal of Global Sport Management, 2(4), 250-274. https://doi.org/10.1080/24704067.2017.1389249

Klimstra, T. (2013). Adolescent personality development and identity formation. Child Development Perspectives, 7(2), 80-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12017

Kock, N. (2021). Common structural variation reduction in PLS-SEM: Replacement analytic composites and the one fourth rule. Data Analysis Perspectives Journal, 2(5), 1-6.

Lai, C. S., Badayai, A. R., Chandrasekaran, K., Lee, S. Y., & Kulasingam, R. (2015). An exploratory study on personality traits and procrastination among university students. American Journal of Applied Psychology4(3), 21-26. https://doi.org/10.11648/J.AJAP.S.2015040301.14

Lee, D. G., Kelly, K. R., & Edwards, J. K. (2006). A closer look at the relationships among trait procrastination, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(1), 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.010  

Ljubin-Golub, T., Petričević, E., & Rovan, D. (2019). The role of personality in motivational regulation and academic procrastination. Educational Psychology, 39(4), 550-568. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2018.1537479

Louvet, E., Cambon, L., Milhabet, I., & Rohmer, O. (2019). The relationship between social status and the components of agency. The Journal of social psychology, 159(1), 30-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2018.1441795

Lu, D., He, Y., & Tan, Y. (2021). Gender, socioeconomic status, cultural differences, education, family size and procrastination: A sociodemographic meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 719425. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.719425

Malykh, S. (2017). The role of personality traits and intelligence in academic achievement of Russian high school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences237, 1304-1309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2017.02.214

Matthews, G. (2020). Against consensus: Embracing the disunity of personality theory. Personality and Individual Differences152, 109535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109535  

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology52(1), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2003). Personality in adulthood: A five-factor theory perspective (2nd ed). Guilford Press.

McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications, Journal of Personality60(2), 175-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x

Meltzer, L. (2014). Teaching executive functioning processes: Promoting metacognition, strategy use, and effort. In S. Goldstein & J. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of Executive Functioning (pp. 445–473). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8106-5_25

Milgram, N. A., Batori, G., & Mowrer, D. (1993). Correlates of academic procrastination. Journal of School Psychology31(4), 487-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-4405(93)90033-F

Milgram, N. A., Sroloff, B., & Rosenbaum, M. (1988). The procrastination of everyday life. Journal of Research in Personality, 22(2), 197-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(88)90015-3

Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., Scullen, S. M., & Rounds, J. (2005). Higher‐order dimensions of the big five personality traits and the big six vocational interest types. Personnel psychology, 58(2), 447-478. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00468.x

Nielsen, M. B., Glasø, L., & Einarsen, S. (2017). Exposure to workplace harassment and the five factor model of personality: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences104, 195-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.015

Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., Kolubinski, D. C., Leach, D., & Spada, M. M. (2021). Modelling the contribution of the big five personality traits, health anxiety, and COVID-19 psychological distress to generalised anxiety and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders279, 578-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.10.053 

Ocansey, G., Addo, C., Onyeaka, H. K., Andoh-Arthur, J., & Oppong Asante, K. (2020). The influence of personality types on academic procrastination among undergraduate students. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2020.1841051  

Özdemir, G., & Dalkiran, E. (2017). Identification of the predictive power of five factor personality traits for individual instrument performance anxiety. Journal of Education and Training Studies5(9), 109-114. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v5i9.2522

Özer, A., & Altun, E. (2011). Universite ogrencilerinin akademik erteleme nedenleri [The reasons for academic procrastination among university student]. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty/ Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 1(21), 45-72. https://bit.ly/373FxHf

Pala, A., Akyıldız, M., & Bağcı, C. (2011). Academic procrastination behaviour of pre-service teachers’ of Celal Bayar University. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences29, 1418-1425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.381

Paleczek, D., Bergner, S., & Rybnicek, R. (2018). Predicting career success: Is the dark side of personality worth considering? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 33(6), 437-456. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-11-2017-0402

Pilarska, A. (2018). Big-Five personality and aspects of the self-concept: Variable-and person-centered approaches. Personality and Individual Differences, 127, 107-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.01.049

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educ Psychol Rev, 16(4), 385-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x  

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879  

Rakes, G. C., & Dunn, K. E. (2010). The impact of online graduate students' motivation and self-regulation on academic procrastination. Journal of Interactive Online Learning9(1), 78-93. https://bit.ly/3s1J14h

Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the big five Inventory in English and German. Journal of research in Personality, 41(1), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.02.001  

Robins, R. W., John, O. P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: Three replicable personality types. Journal of Personality and Social psychology70(1), 157-171. https://doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.1.157  

Robinson, D. (2010). How personality traits and job satisfaction influence service quality in housing agencies (Publication No:837428442) [Doctoral dissertation, Capella University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

 Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.33.4.387

Sartori, R., Costantini, A., Ceschi, A., & Scalco, A. (2017). Not only correlations: A different approach for investigating the relationship between the big five personality traits and job performance based on workers and employees’ perception. Quality & Quantity51(6), 2507-2519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-016-0406-2

Schouwenburg, H. C. (1992). Procrastinators and fear of failure: An exploration of reasons for procrastination. European Journal of Personality, 6(3), 225–236. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.2410060305

Schouwenburg, H. C. (1995). Academic procrastination: Theoretical notions, measurement, and research. In J. R. Ferrari, J. L. Johnson, & W. G. McCown (Eds.), Procrastination and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 71–96). Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0227-6_4

Schouwenburg, H. C., & Lay, C. H. (1995). Trait procrastination and the big-five factors of personality. Personality and Individual differences, 18(4), 481-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(94)00176-S

Semeijn, J. H., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & De Beuckelaer, A. (2020). Personality traits and types in relation to career success: An empirical comparison using the big five. Applied Psychology69(2), 538-556. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12174

Sobowale, K., Ham, S. A., Curlin, F. A., & Yoon, J. D. (2018). Personality traits are associated with academic achievement in medical school: A nationally representative study. Academic Psychiatry42(3), 338-345. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-017-0766-5

Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503-509. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503

Stead, H., & Bibby, P. A. (2017). Personality, fear of missing out and problematic internet use and their relationship to subjective well-being. Computers in Human Behavior76, 534-540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.08.016

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65

Swaminathan, V., & Kubat Dokumaci, U. (2021). Do all, or only some personality types engage in spreading negative WOM? An experimental study of negative WOM, big five personality traits and brand personality. Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 31(3), 260-272. https://doi.org/10.1080/21639159.2020.1808837

Tezer, M., Ulgener, P., Minalay, H., Ture, A., Tugutlu, U., & Harper, M. G. (2020). Examining the relationship between academic procrastination behaviours and problematic Internet usage of high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Global Journal of Guidance and Counseling in Schools: Current Perspectives, 10(3), 142-156. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjgc.v10i3.5549

Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1992). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings. Journal of personality60(2), 225-251. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00973.x

Wang, W., Han, R., Luo, Y., Wu, Z., Jin, Y., Li, Q., & Li, B. (2018). The mediating role of self-efficacy between neuroticism and procrastination among undergraduates. IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA) (pp. 67-71). Changchun. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMA.2018.8484534

Zhang, D., Zhou, Z., Gu, C., Lei, Y., & Fan, C. (2018). Family socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships are associated with the social creativity of elementary school children: The mediating role of personality traits. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(9), 2999-3007. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1130-4

Zhou, M. (2020). Gender differences in procrastination: The role of personality traits. Current Psychology, 39(4), 1445-1453. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9851-5

Ziegler, N., & Opdenakker, M. C. (2018). The development of academic procrastination in first-year secondary education students: The link with metacognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, and effort regulation. Learning and Individual Differences64, 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.04.009